A biodegradable waste material can be defined as a material which can be decomposed by bacteria or other natural organisms and not be added to pollution. Biodegradable waste is a valuable resource that can be used to produce energy and manure.
Biodegradable wastes are such waste materials which are and can be degraded by natural factors like microbes (e.g. bacteria, fungi and a few more), and abiotic elements like temperature, UV, oxygen, etc.
Some examples of such wastes are food materials, kitchen wastes, and other natural wastes. Microorganisms and other abiotic factors together break down complex substances into simpler organic matter, which eventually suspend and fade into the soil.
The whole process is natural, which can be rapid or slow. Therefore, the environmental issues and risks caused by biodegradable wastes are low.
Huge dumping of waste can raise some threats to life sooner or later. To avoid this, some people practice composting. In composting, the biodegradable wastes are dumped into a pit and covered for a period.
Due to the action of microbes, they will decompose and will be used as manure for cultivation purposes. This will reduce the amount of waste in landfills.
What is Biodegradable Waste?
Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be degraded by other living organisms.
Biodegradable waste can be commonly found in municipal solid waste as green waste, food waste, paper waste and biodegradable plastics. Other biodegradable wastes include human waste, manure, sewage, and slaughterhouse waste.
1. Biodegradable waste can be converted into electricity, use as manure, and processed into gas
Biodegradable waste can be converted into electricity, use as manure, and processed into gas.
There are a number of ways to convert biodegradable waste into electricity, including:
Anaerobic digestion – A process used to break down organic matter without oxygen by using microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. These organisms digest the organic matter and produce methane or ethane along with other products like carbon dioxide (CO2).
The CO2 can be collected for use in other processes while the methane can be burned directly to produce heat or used as an energy source.
Composting – Biodegradation is accelerated by oxygen-free conditions created during the composting process. The resulting material is rich in humus which has a high carbon content that can be used for soil enrichment and plant nutrition when it is added back into the soil after processing through a composting facility
2. Biodegradable waste can be used to produce methane gas which is a form of energy
Biodegradable waste can be used to produce methane gas, which is a form of energy. Methane gas is an alternative source of renewable energy that can be used as fuel in industries and homes.
Methane gas is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic matter in landfills where microorganisms break down organic matter without the presence of oxygen.
3. Methane gas can be used to generate electricity in industries and homes
Using methane gas to generate electricity in industries and homes. Methane is a renewable source of energy that can be used to generate electricity in industries and homes. It is a non-toxic, clean burning fuel and also used for heating and cooking.
This type of energy is called bio-gas because it is derived from organic matter such as organic waste that could otherwise be thrown away or buried in landfills.
4. Methane gas is produced through the anaerobic digestion of waste in a landfill where microorganisms break down organic matter without the presence of oxygen
Methane gas is the main component of landfill gas and is produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste in a landfill. Anaerobic digestion is a process whereby microorganisms break down organic matter without the presence of oxygen.
The anaerobic process can occur in landfills, but it also occurs naturally in waterlogged sedimentary rocks and peat bogs, where carbon-rich plant material decomposes over many years to produce methane as a byproduct.
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5. Biodegradable waste can be collected and used as manure which is rich in carbon and other minerals which are vital for plant growth and development
Biodegradable waste can be collected and used as manure which is rich in carbon and other minerals which are vital for plant growth and development.
Composted manure is rich in nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash, organic matter (humus), calcium, magnesium, zinc and boron etc.
It improves soil texture and fertility by retaining moisture in the soil, suppressing plant diseases by providing a suitable environment for beneficial organisms to grow on it.
6. Composted manure improves the soil texture, increases fertility, helps retain moisture, and suppresses plant diseases
Composted manure improves the soil texture, increases fertility and helps retain moisture. It also suppresses plant diseases.
Composting manure is an age-old process that converts organic material into humus (a dark brown or black nutrient-rich organic substance), which improves soil texture and enhances fertility.
Animal manures contain a high percentage of nitrogen but they need to be composted before they can be used as fertilizers in gardens or crops because they are too hot and will burn plant roots if applied directly on them without undergoing composting first.
Composted manure is rich in carbon, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus while being low in salts or salt build up; therefore it improves the texture of soils as well as their fertility levels by providing vital macro nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K).