Thursday, April 25, 2024
Waste Recycling

Strategies for Carrying out Waste Recycling

Before developing a strategy for implementing 3R practices, municipal authorities must answer the following questions:

Who are the recyclers?

What are the advantages of recycling solid waste?

What is being recycled?

What is not being recycled and why?

What are the main challenges?

What steps are necessary to improve the recycling and resource recovery of materials?

Ideally, the 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) concept will be applied as early as possible in the waste generation and management chain so that managers of waste can:

Maintain the high material quality and value of recyclable waste materials

Reduce the loss of valuable natural resources and virgin raw materials

Limit pollution of land

Reduce long-distance transport of waste

Reduce landfill space requirements and environmental pollution

Minimize the costs of both production of goods and management of waste.

Recycling Materials

Almost every material can be recycled; however, the value of the recycled material can vary significantly depending on the demand and uses for it.

Indeed the value of a material is the driving factor for private recycling initiatives or in the case of many developing countries the informal sector.

If and how a material is recycled depends not only on local policies but also on the availability of a buyer, processing facilities, and a transport chain.

Most of the garbage generated in the household can be recycled and reused. Organic kitchen waste such as leftover foodstuff, vegetable peels, and spoilt or dried fruits and vegetables can be recycled by putting them in the compost pits that have been dug in the garden.

Read Also : Meaning and Steps Involved in Waste Recycling

Old newspapers, magazines and bottles can be sold to the waste vendor the man who buys these items from homes. In your own homes you can contribute to waste reduction and the recycling and reuse of certain items.

The table below shows some household wastes that can be recycled or reused.

Table: Recyclable Household Wastes

S/NoWaste ItemExamples


Old copies, Old books Paper bags, Newspapers Old greeting cards Cardboard box


Containers, Bottles Bags, Sheets


Glass and Ceramics
Bottles, Plates Cups, Bowls


Old cans, Utensils Clothes, Furniture

Waste Recycling can be further Illustrated using a Schematic Diagram as Shown in Figure below.

Strategies for Carrying out Waste Recycling

The table below gives an overview of typical recycling materials and their potential treatment options

Read Also : The Different Systems of Waste Reduction

Table: Important Recycling Materials: Advantages and Drawbacks

AluminumAluminum has high market value. It can be easily recycled by shredding and melting. It can be recycled indefinitely because it does not deteriorate from reprocessing Aluminum recycling requires significantly less energy than producing aluminum from ore.Separate collection is important Recycling is suitable only if a processing plant is available.
BatteriesRecycling recovers valuable metals Recycling protects the environment from heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury.Large variation in type and size of batteries requires specific recycling processes. Older batteries have high heavy metal content.
Concrete and demolition wasteDemolition waste can be crushed to gravel and be reused in road construction and landscapingMachinery required for Crushing is maintenance intensive. Recycled waste is valuable only if there is a lack of other construction material.

Energy compared with processing raw material. Glass can be recycled indefinitely because it does not deteriorate from reprocessing.
Organic wasteMost commonly recycled by composting or anaerobic digestionThough compost is very beneficial to depleted soils, it still has a low market value
Other metalScrap metal has a high market value (especially steel, copper, silver, and platinum). It can be recycled indefinitely because it does not deteriorate from reprocessing.High-value metals (such as copper and silver) are incorporated in electronic devices, but extraction can cause severe environmental impacts.
PaperPaper can be easily recycled; however, quality deteriorates with each cycle. Paper or cardboard from recycled paper requires less energy to produce and protects forestsAppropriate technologies with circular processes are required to protect the environment.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)PET can be recycled if segregated from other waste. Reprocessing into granulate is very easy. PET has a high market value if processing plants are available.More “downcycling” than recycling occurs because quality decreases with every processing cycle.
Other plasticOther plastic, such as polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride, can be recycled but has less value on the market than PET; the value depends on recycling and manufacturing options in the vicinity.Recycling requires specific machinery
ElectronicElectronic waste (such asMetals are often
wastecomputers or mobile phones) contains high value metals. Electronic items can be dismantled, reused, or recycledCovered with

polyvinyl chloride

Or resins, which

are often smelted

or burned, causing

toxic emissions


Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with over 12 years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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