Solid waste is made up of all the wastes from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. Solid waste can also be categorized as Municipal solid wastes, industrial solid wastes, and agricultural solid wastes.
Solid waste is any garbage, trash, or refuse from wastewater treatment plants, air pollution control facilities, and other discarded materials which include solid, liquid, and gaseous material, coming from industries, mining, and agricultural operations.
Nigeria’s main urban areas are presently struggling to clear mounting heaps of waste from their environments. It’s surprising how these promising lands are covered in waste, overflowing waste, and non-recycled heaps of solid waste coming from their house, kitchens, market, and business centers.
All this refusal affects human health, the environment, and all the urban areas have become a problem for Nigeria today. The citizens have come to realize the consequences of this waste that are not properly cleared.
This waste has become an everyday issue, always occurring in the urban environment. It is no longer a new thing that Nigeria is affected by the problems of this unclear solid waste.
Evaluating the Problems of Solid Waste Management
Solid waste management problem is one of the most serious environmental problems facing many cities in Nigeria. It is also the biggest problem for the government of both small and large cities in developing countries.
This is mainly due to the increasing technology of such solid waste and the load placed on the municipal budget. In addition to the high costs, solid waste management is associated with a lack of awareness of various factors that have affected the whole managing system.
The generation of organic solid waste (OSW); worldwide; is increasing every year rapidly. Most of the organic solid waste are made of agricultural waste, household food waste, human and animal wastes, etc.
They are usually treated as animal feed, incinerated, or disposed to landfill sites. Organic solid waste are comprised of materials rich in proteins, minerals, and sugars that could be used in other processes as substrates or raw materials.
Due to the increase in urbanization and infrequent environmental sanitation works, the urban area is a fund of dumping solid wastes carelessly anywhere they like, such particular disagreement and attributes would seem impossible to understand; if we desire to live in a conducive and favorable environment.
Some of the lagoon fronts in the country has been turned into a dump for human and all sorts of solid waste. Trucks are often fully loaded with feces queued up in large numbers to discharge the contents into the lagoon (Njoku 2006).
Environmental experts have stated that the implication of this practice is very dangerous. The failure of relevant agencies to stop the reckless waste dumping and littering of Nigerian cities’ infrastructure (streets and roads) and surrounding bushes show a clear pattern of non-enforcement or non-implementation of existing environmental sanitation laws or policies.
Irregular and unplanned dumping of solid wastes, especially at night, is often illegal therefore rendering relevant rules and regulations that are expected to usher us in a beautiful, clean and orderly environment.
Consequently, there remains a huge gap between policy formulation, execution, and solid wastes, especially at night, which are often in gross violation of relevant rules and regulations and continue to hinder plan preparations and effective land use delineation which were expected to usher in a beautiful, clean and orderly environment.
Consequently, there remains a huge gap between policy formulation, execution, and implementation which exacerbates the problem of solid waste management in Nigerian cities and necessitate the need to evaluate the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria by the researcher.
Poor waste management – from the problem of non-existing collection systems to ineffective disposal – causes air pollution, and water and soil contamination. Open and unsanitary landfills contribute to contamination of drinking water and can cause infection and transmit diseases.
The increase in the amount of waste associated with the modern economy is causing a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. Every year, an estimated 11 .2 billion tons of solid waste is collected worldwide and the decay of the organic proportion of solid waste is contributing to about 5 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Every year, an estimated 11.2 billion tons of solid waste are collected worldwide.
Some of the problems caused by solid waste:
The solid waste thrown on the land (landfill) pollutes the soil and pollutes the groundwater while the incinerators cause air pollution.
Trash and garbage thrown in the incinerator such as metals, glass, and cans, that are valuable resources can be recycled, thus causing an explosion and exploitation of more resources.
Solid waste disposal mostly takes up our valuable and costly lands.
This solid waste attracts flies, rats, and mosquitoes which are harmful to our health.
However, solid wastes can be managed by open dumping, which requires less planning, and land that is designed specifically for disposing of waste.