Today we are going to discuss about membrane geometries and module configuration.
Spiral wound modules: This consists of large consecutive layers of membrane and support material rolled up around a tube.
Maximizes surface area
(i) More sensitive to pollution.
The feed solution flows through the membrane core and the permeate is collected in the tubular housing.
(i) Generally used for viscous or bad quality fluids.
(i) System is not very compact and has a high cost per unit area installed.
Hollow fiber membrane
The modules contain several small (0.6 to 2 mm diameter) tubes or fibers. The feed solution flows through the open cores of the fibers and the permeate is collected in the cartridge area surrounding the fibers. The filtration can be carried out either ―inside-out‖ or ―outside-in.
Read Also : Sedimentation Processes in Waste-water Treatment
Pressurized system or pressure-vessel configuration:TMP (trans-membrane pressure) is generated in the feed by a pump, while the permeate stays at atmospheric pressure.
Pressure-vessels are generally standardized, allowing the design of membrane systems to proceed independently of the characteristics of specific membrane elements.
Immersed system: Membranes are suspended in basins containing the feed and open to the atmosphere. Pressure on the influent side is limited to the pressure provided by the feed column. TMP is generated by a pump that develops suction on the permeate side. Ultrafiltration, like other filtration methods can be run as a continuous or batch process
Applications of Ultrafiltration
- Dialysis and other blood treatments
- Concentration of milk before making cheese
- Downstream processing (e.g., concentration) of biotechnology- derived proteins (e.g., therapeutic antibodies)
- Desalting and solvent-exchange of proteins (via diafiltration)
- Fractionation of proteins
- Clarification of fruit juice
- Recovery of vaccines and antibiotics from fermentation broth
- Laboratory grade water purification
- Industrial waste-water treatment
- Drinking water disinfection (including removal of viruses)
- Removal of endocrines and pesticides combined with Suspended Activated Carbon pretreatment
- Ultrafiltration (industrial)
- Ultrafiltration (renal)
In conclusion, from the above we can conclude that Ultrafiltration is a pressure-driven purification process in which water and low molecular weight substances permeate a membrane while particles, colloids, and macromolecules are retained.
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The primary removal mechanism is size exclusion, although the electrical charge and surface chemistry of the particles or membrane may affect the purification efficiency. It has got a wide variety of uses, one of which is in industrial waste-water treatment.
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