Irrigation and management practices such as the rate and timing of pesticide applications and the mode of pesticide application also affect pesticide transport processes.
The recommended practices include pesticide use only when and where it is necessary and in amounts adequate to control pests.
When applying pesticides, the directions on the labels should be carefully followed to minimize harmful effects to the applicator as well as potential losses to the environment.
Pesticide users should select pesticides that are less likely to leach. Irrigation should be avoided shortly after pesticide application to reduce losses through runoff and leaching. The best management practices for pesticide use are location and crop specific.
From the above, it can be concluded that it is imperative to understand the diverse factors controlling the mobility of pesticides in the soil to achieve effective and efficient pest control while reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.
The mobility of pesticides in the soil is not determined by a single property of the pesticide but controlled by a combination of properties including water solubility, absorptivity, volatility, and pesticide half-life.
Pesticide movement in soil is largely controlled by several factors including soil texture, soil moisture, organic matter, and soil pH.
The site conditions affecting the mobility of pesticides in the soil include groundwater table, hydrogeologic conditions, and climatic and weather conditions; and Irrigation and management practices such as the rate and timing of pesticide applications and the mode of pesticide application also affect pesticide transport processes.