Climate change in Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) usage refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.
It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.
This definition differs from that in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which defines “climate change” as: “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.
The Earth‘s average temperature has been increasing since the Industrial Revolution. Between 1880 and 2015, average global surface temperatures rose by 0.9°C (1.5°F).
Composition and Temperature of the Atmosphere
Dry airis mainly composed of nitrogen (78.08 % in volume), oxygen (20.95% in volume), argon (0.93% in volume) and to a lesser extent carbon dioxide1 (380 ppm or 0.038% in volume).
The remaining fraction is made up of various trace constituents such as neon (18 ppm), helium (5 ppm), methane1 (1.75 ppm), and krypton (1 ppm). In addition, a highly variable amount of water vapour is present in the air.
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This ranges from approximately 0% in the coldest part of the atmosphere to as much as 5% in moist and hot regions. On average, water vapour accounts for 0.25% of the mass of the atmosphere.
In summary, the climate system is the highly complex system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cry sphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere, and the interactions between them.
The climate system evolves in time under the influence of its own internal dynamics and because of external forcing such as volcanic eruptions, solar variations and anthropogenic forcing such as the changing composition of the atmosphere and land use change.
Climate is traditionally defined as the description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind. Climate can thus be viewed as a synthesis or aggregate of weather.
This implies that the portrayal of the climate in a particular region must contain an analysis of mean conditions, of the seasonal cycle and of the probability of extremes such as severe frost and storms.
Climate change is referred to as any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), attributed the alteration of the composition of the global atmosphere which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.
The impact of this alteration on the Earth‘s average temperature has been increasing since the Industrial Revolution. Between 1880 and 2015, average global surface temperatures rose by 0.9°C (1.5°F).
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