The hygienic storage of refuse is achieved through the following:
The provision of adequate and sufficient number of containers (waste bins) to hold to hold the refuse generated between collections
Use of approved waste bins properly positioned for users and easy access to the collection crew
The maintenance of the containers and the surroundings in a sanitary condition.
In summary, the variables that impact the volume required for the storage of domestic wastes are: individual rate of waste generation, number of individuals living in the premises, and frequency of collection.
Fig.: Plastic Bags Used for Storage of Wastes
1. Segregation, Reuse, and Recycling at the Household Level
The segregation, reuse and recycling of solid waste will be discussed in detail in some of our previous articles.
Read Also : Other Waste Treatment Technologies
Suffice to mention here that the dustbins in the figure above are colour coded and provided to ease this process. It is a modern day approach to solid waste management to be discussed under integrated solid waste management.
2. Waste Collection
Refuse collection involves the use of different transport equipment and machinery to remove refuse by the aid of the collecting crew either from the individual premises or from approved refuse depots.
Waste from our homes is generally collected by our local authorities through regular waste collection, or by special collections for recycling. Within hot climates, waste should be collected at least twice a week to control fly breeding, and the harboring of other pests in the community.
Other factors to consider when deciding on frequency of collection are the odors caused by decomposition and the accumulated quantities.
Table: Key Points Concerning Main Collection Systems
|SHARED: Residents can bring out waste at any time|
|Dumping at designated location||Residents and other generators are required to dump their waste at a specified location or in a masonry enclosure.||Low capital costs||Loading the waste into trucks is slow and unhygienic. Waste is scattered around the collection point. Adjacent residents and shopkeepers protest about the smell and appearance.|
|Shared container||Residents and other generators put their waste inside a container which is emptied or removed.||Low operating costs||If containers are not maintained they quickly corrode or are damaged. Adjacent residents complain about the smell and appearance.|
|INDIVIDUAL: The generators need a suitable container and must store the waste on their property until it is collected.|
|collection||Horn or rings bell and waits at specified locations for residents to bring waste to the collection vehicle.||Less waste on streets. No permanent container or Storage to cause complaints.||are out when collector comes, waste must be left outside for collection. It may be scattered by wind, animals and waste pickers.|
|Kerbside collection||Waste is left outside property in a container and picked up by passing vehicle, or swept up and collected by sweeper.||Convenient. No permanent public storage.||Waste that is left out may be scattered by wind, animals, children or waste pickers. If collection service is delayed, waste may not be collected or some time, causing considerable nuisance.|
|Door to door collection||Waste collector knocks on each door or rings doorbell and waits for waste to be brought out by resident.||Convenient for resident. Little waste on street.||Residents must be available to hand waste over. Not suitable for apartment buildings because of the amount of walking required.|
|Yard collection||Collection labourer enters property to remove waste.||Very convenient for residents. No waste in street.||The most expensive system, because of the walking involved. Cultural beliefs, security considerations or architectural styles may prevent labourers from entering properties.|
3. Organization of Waste Collection
The table above gives a concise description of solid waste collection systems strategy. Organized waste collection systems will normally be found best to have a team composed of an even number of loaders, the usual size being four to eight men.
It is only the largest vehicles that can hold all the refuse loaded in one day and, therefore, it will be necessary for the vehicle to travel to the disposal point during the period of collection.
If the haul is a short one, it may be an advantage to allow a break to the loaders; usually however, it will be necessary to arrange for collecting vehicles to work in relay. Where the haul is long and the rate of loading is high, it may be necessary to have two vehicles per team.
It should be noted that in modern day applications especially where refuse is stored in central depots, the loading is done mechanically using heavy machinery.
4. Frequency of Waste Collection
Some communities are accustomed to a collection seven days a week, whilst other collection agencies are striving for just once each week. If fly breeding is to be controlled, the waste should be collected twice a week in hot climates.
Other factors to consider are the odours caused by decomposition and the accumulated quantities. If residents are accustomed to daily collection it may not be politically feasible to reduce the frequency to twice a week.
In some cities waste is collected on the day of rest (Sunday or Friday). Some collect waste at night, perhaps for cultural reasons or because of the weather or traffic congestion.
5. Solid Waste Transport
The collection and transport of solid waste from households or municipal deports are closely tied together. Efficient collection is a function of easy transport systems as indicated above.
Different transport systems can be applied for effective solid waste transfer from generation/storage point to the treatment and disposal facilities. At the micro and semi micro level three common types of primary collection vehicles are as follows:
- The handcart which is pushed by the operator as he walks along
- Very limited capacity in terms of volume and capacity
- Carries 0.25 to 1 cubic metre with a maximum range of 1 km
- Very cheap
- Operated by one person.
- The pedal tricycle with a tray or box in front of or behind the operator.
- Loads up to 1.5 cu.m
- Range greater because of higher speed when empty
- Lifetime about 2 years
- No negative impact on environment.
- Animal-drawn cats, often pulled by donkeys
Simple motor-powered vehicles should be considered where longer distances require larger payloads and higher speeds, or where slopes are based on small motorbikes.
A wide variety of trucks are used for collection earlier discussed. Factors to consider in selecting include:
- The weight of waste that the truck can actually carry
- Cost of purchase and operation, including fuel and maintenance
- Delays in obtaining spare parts
- Suitability of the vehicle for the local roads considering width, congestion, and surface conditions
- Ease of loading and unloading.
Efficient waste transport system divides the waste in three lists and sets priorities for each list:
- Green List: free transport (just notification to government) e.g. sorted municipal solid waste
- Orange List: limited transport e.g. unsorted municipal solid waste
- Red List: transport restricted strongly: e.g. hazardous waste.
Products on the green list can be traded freely. Products on the orange and red list are restricted and fall under the principles of proximity and self-sufficiency.
6. Disposal of Solid Waste
The final destination of any solid waste is in the disposal facility where it is finally handled and disposed. Most management technologies offer a change in the volume and characteristics of the waste whereas some others serve to hold the waste e.g. burying and landfills.
In conclusion, the success of any waste management venture depends on the extent to which the planner applies the intricate processes of capturing the waste.
Read Also : Elements of Solid Waste Management Processes
The primary handling of the waste from the point source by careful segregation and storage is a first step towards a successful management.
Early segregation of waste improves the recovery of resources, minimizes cost of handling and environmental insult and increases the overall efficiency of the management process.
Sustainable waste management strategy encompasses sound waste storage, collection and transport systems complemented with good treatment and disposal technologies.